A11y design patterns and accessibility validation checklist

A11y design patterns and accessibility validation checklist

Sergey Lebedev


Welcome to the second article in our web accessibility series! In the previous article, we explored the key principles of web accessibility, including semantic markup, keyboard accessibility, and visual assistance. Now, armed with this foundational knowledge, we’re ready to take the next step on our journey to create more inclusive web experiences. So, let’s continue our quest to create a web that is truly accessible for all.

Design Patterns: Creating Accessible Web Components

A11y design patterns offer a structured approach to making web applications conform to WCAG success criteria. These patterns are proven solutions that address common accessibility challenges. By incorporating these patterns into your design and development process, you can create a more accessible and user-friendly web experience.

1. Semantic markup for accessible components

Semantic markup is the foundation of web accessibility. By using appropriate HTML tags and ARIA attributes, we enable screen readers and assistive technologies to interpret content correctly. Emphasizing semantic elements allows us to create accessible buttons, links, navigation menus, and more. By leveraging the power of semantic HTML, we empower users with disabilities to navigate and interact with web content seamlessly.

For instance, using the <button> element for interactive elements rather than <div> or <span> ensures that users with assistive technologies recognize them as clickable buttons. Additionally, associating proper ARIA roles and attributes with these elements enhances their accessibility. Providing descriptive text within buttons using the aria-label attribute helps convey the button’s purpose explicitly to screen reader users.

2. Navigation and focus management

For users with motor disabilities, efficient keyboard navigation is paramount. Implementing skip links, focus indicators, and focus trapping ensures a smooth user experience. Accessible dropdown menus, tabs, and accordion panels make web applications more navigable. By employing robust navigation techniques, we create a barrier-free environment for all users, regardless of their input method.

Keyboard navigation requires special attention to ensure that users can navigate through interactive elements easily. Interactive elements, such as links, buttons, and form controls, should be reachable and operable using the keyboard’s tab key. As users navigate, a visible focus indicator should highlight the focused element. This indicator allows users to understand where they are on the page and which element they can interact with next. Developers can customize focus indicators to match the design aesthetics while ensuring they are distinct and clearly visible.

Focus management also involves ensuring that keyboard focus does not get trapped in certain areas of the page, preventing users from moving to other interactive elements. Focus trapping is especially crucial when dealing with modals and pop-ups. Users should be able to close these modal windows using the ESC key or other designated keyboard shortcuts.

3. Accessible form design

Forms are integral to many web applications, and designing them accessibly is crucial. Clear and descriptive labels for input fields aid all users in understanding form elements. Utilizing ARIA roles and attributes enhances the accessibility of form controls. Implementing error handling and validation messages ensures a more user-friendly form experience, reducing frustration for users with various abilities.

When designing forms, ensure that each form control has a visible label associated with it. For example, using the <label> element for the label and associating it with the corresponding input using the for attribute or nesting them properly is essential. Users with screen readers rely on these labels to understand the purpose of form fields.

To enhance the user experience, developers can use ARIA attributes such as aria-required, aria-invalid, and aria-describedby to provide additional information about form controls. For example, associating an error message with the corresponding input using aria-describedby helps users understand the cause of the error and how to resolve it.

4. A11y design patterns for complex widgets

Beyond basic elements, web applications often include more complex widgets like sliders, carousels, and tab panels. These components require additional accessibility considerations. By utilizing ARIA roles and properties, we can make these widgets more accessible to users with disabilities.

For instance, sliders allow users to input numerical values through a draggable handle. To make sliders accessible, developers can add role=”slider” and provide an aria-valuemin, aria-valuemax, and aria-valuenow attributes to indicate the slider’s range and current value. Screen readers can then announce these values as the slider is adjusted.

Similarly, tab panels, often used for organizing content into separate sections, can be made more accessible by providing role=”tablist” to the container and role=”tab” for each tab element. Additionally, using aria-controls to associate each tab with its corresponding panel enables users to understand the relationship between tabs and content areas.

5. Ensuring compatibility with assistive technologies

As we implement accessibility design patterns, it’s crucial to ensure compatibility with a wide range of assistive technologies. Users with disabilities rely on screen readers, braille displays, and other assistive devices to access web content. Testing our designs with popular screen readers like NVDA (NonVisual Desktop Access) on Windows and VoiceOver on Mac can provide valuable insights into how users with disabilities experience our websites.

Automated accessibility testing tools, like axe-core and Pa11y, can help identify potential issues and offer recommendations for improvement. These tools scan web pages and provide reports on WCAG compliance, highlighting areas that need attention.

Accessibility basic validation checklist: ensuring WCAG compliance

Implementing accessibility design patterns is a significant step towards creating an inclusive web experience. However, validating your website’s accessibility against established guidelines is equally important. To assist you in this endeavor, we have compiled a comprehensive accessibility validation checklist.

1. Semantic Markup

  • Use semantic HTML tags whenever possible, including headings, lists, tables, and navigation elements.
  • Ensure heading levels are nested appropriately to demonstrate the relative importance of content.
  • Provide descriptive labels for all form controls, links, and buttons to enhance user understanding.

2. Keyboard Accessibility

  • Make all interactive elements accessible via the keyboard using the tab key.
  • Ensure that keyboard focus is visually indicated for interactive elements.
  • Test the accessibility of modals, popups, and dropdown menus when accessed via the keyboard.

3. Visual Assistance

  • Check color contrast ratios to ensure text is easily readable against its background (minimum 4.5:1).
  • Verify that the website remains usable when the browser’s zoom level is increased to 200%.
  • Ensure all elements with focus have a clear and visible focus indicator.

4. ARIA Roles and attributes

  • Use ARIA roles and attributes appropriately to enhance the accessibility of complex widgets.
  • Ensure ARIA roles are used according to their intended purpose and do not duplicate native semantics.
  • Test ARIA implementations for compatibility with assistive technologies.

5. Compatibility with assistive technologies

  • Test web pages with popular screen readers like NVDA and VoiceOver to ensure compatibility.
  • Use automated accessibility testing tools like axe-core and Pa11y to identify and address potential issues.
  • Perform manual testing with a keyboard-only navigation to ensure a seamless user experience.

Incorporating A11y design patterns and adhering to an accessibility validation checklist are essential steps in creating a more inclusive web environment. By designing with accessibility in mind and testing against established guidelines, you can provide a better user experience for all users, regardless of their abilities.

Remember, accessibility is not just about complying with regulations; it’s about empathy and ensuring that everyone can access and interact with web content on equal terms.

In the final article of our series, we will explore tools and techniques for testing web accessibility. Stay tuned as we delve into the realm of testing and continue our mission to build a web that is truly accessible to all. Let’s keep making the web a more inclusive place, one design pattern, and validation at a time!

Additional Resources

  1. ARIA (APG) Design Patterns: List of ARIA design patterns for accessible web applications.
  2. WAI-ARIA Authoring Practices 1.2: Examples of using WAI-ARIA effectively in web content.
  3. WCAG 2.1: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) version 2.1.
  4. A11ycasts with Rob Dodson: Video series on web accessibility by Rob Dodson.
  5. Screen Reader: Chrome extension for simulating screen readers.
  6. WebAIM: ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications): WebAIM’s guide to ARIA roles, states, and properties.



Sergey Lebedev

Senior Frontend Developer • Team Lead • JavaScript, Angular, React, TypeScript • UI/UX